Malaria Vector Controls
The Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) serves as an umbrella evaluation of environmental and human health issues related to malaria vector control and is conducted under the requirements of Title 22, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 216 (22 CFR 216). The purpose of the PEA is to evaluate the potential human health and ecological impacts of existing Malaria Control Program interventions as well as potential new interventions being considered by the Program.
Neptune conducted the pesticide human health risk assessment (HHRA) component of the PEA for the Integrated Vector Management Programs for Malaria Vector Control. The HHRA evaluated worker and public risks for 19 pesticides employed in indoor residual spraying, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and larviciding using methods consistent with EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs and the World Health Organization. The HHRA updates an assessment in a 2007 PEA by employing more sophisticated environmental transport and exposure assessment methods to address effectiveness of worker personal protective equipment, vadose zone leaching of disposed pesticides, and multi-pathway risks related to DDT use. EPA pesticide registration and re-registration documents and Integrated Risk Information System, as well as primary literature references and unpublished toxicity studies from pesticide manufacturers, were researched and reviewed to produce the PEA.
Neptune conducted the ecological assessment (EA) component of the PEA for the Integrated Vector Management Programs for Malaria Vector Control. The EA focused on risks to domestic livestock (chickens) from DDT use, risks to nontarget aquatic species from larvicide use, and risks to nontarget aquatic species from the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (washing, and use of nets for fishing). For the evaluation of ecological risk to domestic chickens, a toxicity reference value specific to chickens was derived. The EA was conducted using methods consistent with EPA’s Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment.